The Great Lakes are under enormous pressure from multiple sources including changes in land use patterns, industrial and agricultural contaminant inputs, invasive species, and climate change. These pressures influence species diversity, fish and wildlife habitats, and risk of human disease. The effective response of the environment ultimately determines the viability and sustainability of these resources. In order to evaluate environmental health effectively, it is critical to develop methods to demonstrate changes, evaluate health risks, and explore potential approaches to mitigate detrimental effects of stressors. We will continue to take the lead in assessing changes in environmental health, modeling current and predicted outcomes, and developing new methods of monitoring to anticipate emerging threats. We will expand our future activities to cover a larger spatial scale, examining whole lake and basin perspectives, and extrapolate our findings across jurisdictional and bi-national borders.