USGS - science for a changing world

U.S. Geological Survey - Great Lakes Science Center

Publications

  • Madenjian, Charles P., Daniel L. Yule, Sergei M. Chernyak, Linda J. Begnoche, Eric K. Berglund, Edmund J. Isaac 2014 Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior. Science of the Total Environment 493 pp. 377-383.

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean= 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean= 98ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P<0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3-7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

    Contribution #1856
  • Yurista, Peder M., Daniel Yule, Matt Balge, Jon D. VanAlstine, Jo A. Thompson, Allison E. Gamble, Thomas R. Hrabik, John R. Kelly, Jason D. Stockwell, Mark Vinson 2014 A new look at the Lake Superior biomass size-spectrum. NRC Press . Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 71 (9). pp. 1324-1333.
    We synthesized data from multiple sampling programs and years to describe the Lake Superior pelagic biomass size
    structure. Data consisted of Coulter counts for phytoplankton, optical plankton counts for zooplankton, and acoustic surveys for
    pelagic prey fish. The size spectrum was stable across two time periods separated by 5 years. The primary scaling or overall slope
    of the normalized biomass size spectra for the combined years was .1.113, consistent with a previous estimate for Lake Superior
    (.1.10). Periodic dome structures within the overall biomass size structure were fit to polynomial regressions based on the
    observed sub-domes within the classical taxonomic positions (algae, zooplankton, and fish). This interpretation of periodic dome
    delineation was aligned more closely with predator.prey size relationships that exist within the zooplankton (herbivorous,
    predacious) and fish (planktivorous, piscivorous) taxonomic positions. Domes were spaced approximately every 3.78 log10 units
    along the axis and with a decreasing peak magnitude of .4.1 log10 units. The relative position of the algal and herbivorous
    zooplankton domes predicted well the subsequent biomass domes for larger predatory zooplankton and planktivorous prey fish.
    Contribution #1851
  • Vinson, Mark R., Red R. Angradi 2014 Muskie Lunacy: Does the Lunar Cycle Influence Angler Catch of Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?. PLOS ONE 9 (5). pp. 1-12.

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North American to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day, would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore no conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (> 102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48 ⁰N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but out results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

    Contribution #1849
  • Pritt, Jeremy J., Mark R. DuFour, Christine M. Mayer, Edward F. Roseman, Robin L. DeBruyne 2014 Sampling little fish in big rivers: Larval fish detection probabilities in two Lake Erie tributaries and implications for sampling effort and abundance indices. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 143 (4). pp. 1011-1027.

    Larval fish are frequently sampled in coastal tributaries to determine factors affecting recruitment, evaluate spawning success, and estimate production from spawning habitats. Imperfect detection of larvae is common, because larval fish are small and unevenly distributed in space and time, and coastal tributaries are often large and heterogeneous. We estimated detection probabilities of larval fish from several taxa in the Maumee and Detroit rivers, the two largest tributaries of Lake Erie. We then demonstrated how accounting for imperfect detection influenced (1) the probability of observing taxa as present relative to sampling effort and (2) abundance indices for larval fish of two Detroit River species. We found that detection probabilities ranged from 0.09 to 0.91 but were always less than 1.0, indicating that imperfect detection is common among taxa and between systems. In general, taxa with high fecundities, small larval length at hatching, and no nesting behaviors had the highest detection probabilities. Also, detection probabilities were higher in the Maumee River than in the Detroit River. Accounting for imperfect detection produced up to fourfold increases in abundance indices for Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. The effect of accounting for imperfect detection in abundance indices was greatest during periods of low abundance for both species. Detection information can be used to determine the appropriate level of sampling effort for larval fishes and may improve management and conservation decisions based on larval fish data.

    Contribution #1846
  • O'Mallet, Brian P., David B. Bunnell. 2014 Diet of Mysis diluviana reveals seasonal patterns of omnivory and consumption of invasive species in offshore Lake Michigan. Journal of Plankton Research 36 (4). pp. 989-1002.

    Recent changes in Lake Michigan's lower trophic levels were hypothesized to have influenced the diet of omnivorous Mysis diluviana. In this study, the stomach contents of Mysis were examined from juvenile and adults collected monthly (April-October) from a 110-m bottom depth site to describe their seasonal diet in Lake Michigan during 2010. Diatoms were the most common prey item ingested, followed by calanoid copepods, and chrysophytes. Dreissenid veligers were documented in mysid diets for the first time in the Great Lakes, and Ceropagis pengoi were not only consumed but even preferred by adults in summer. Diet proportions by weight were dominated by calanoids, although diets showed a marked shift toward cladocerans in autumn. Juvenile and adult Mysis selected primarily for cladoceran prey but also selected for some calanoid copepod taxa. Comparing available Mysis diet data from 1985 to 2010 indicated generally fewer cladocerans and rotifers per gut and less consistent differences in copepods and Peridinium consumed. The seasonal composition of phyto- and zooplankton prey documented herein should be useful to those seeking to understand the trophic role of Mysis in offshore food webs, but caution should be expressed when generalizing similarities in Mysis diets across other lakes because Lake Michigan's population seems relatively more herbivorous.

    Contribution #1844
  • Riley, Stephen C., Thomas R. Binder, Nigel J. Wattrus, Matthew D. Faust, John Janssen, John Menzies, J. Ellen Marsden, Mark P. Ebener, Charles R. Bronte, Ji X. He, Taaja R. Tucker, Michael J. Hansen, Henry T. Thompson, Andrew M. Muir, Charles C. Krueger 2014 Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins. Journal of Great Lakes Research 40 pp. 415-420.

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout eff incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

    Contribution #1841
  • Manny, B. A., B.A. Daley, J.C. Boase, A.N. Horne. J.A. Chiotti 2014 Occurence, habitat, and movements of the endangered northern madtom (Noturus stigmosus) in the Detroit River, 2003-2011. Journal of Great Lakes Research 40 (Supplement 2). pp. 118-124.

    The northern madtom 9Noturus stigmosus or NOM) is a small catfish, native to North America. It is globally vulnerable and endangered in Canada, Ontario, and Michigan. In 1994 and 1996, it was found in the St. Clair River and in Lake St. Clair, respectively. However, it had not been found downstream in the Detroit River since 1978. We report catches of 304 NOM from 2003 to 2011 and describe their mud and sand habits in the deep (10 m), dark, Detroit River. We found adult NOM, including 3 ripe males (90-107 mm SL) in head waters of the river near Belle Isle in Michigan waters, and both adult and 4 juvenile NOM (21-30 mm SL) near Peche Island in Ontario waters. From 2009 to 2011, in the river's middle reach, we caught 7 adult NOM for the first time near Fighting Island in Ontario waters, but no NOM in the river's lower reach. Our mark-recapture results showed that within 6 weeks, 2 adult NOM moved east 2.0 km from Michigan waters near Belle Isle across the deep (10m) Fleming Channel of the Detroit River to Canadian waters near Peche Island. Analysis of annuli from pectoral spines of 7 dead NOM revealed that they live to at least 6 years of age in the Detroit River. This is the fist age data that we could find for a NOM population. Our findings extended our knowledge of habitat, reproductive ecology, age, and distribution of NOM in the Detroit River corridor.

    Contribution #1840
  • O'Brien, Timothy P., William W. Taylor, Edward F. Roseman, Charles P. Madenjian, Stephen C. Riley 2014 Ecological Factors Affecting Rainbow Smelt Recruitment in the Main Basin of Lake Huron, 1976-2010. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 143 (3). pp. 784-795.

    Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax are native to northeastern Atlantic and Pacific-Arctic drainages and have been widely introduced throughout North America. In the Great Lakes region, Rainbow Smelt are known predators and competitors of native fish and a primary prey species in pelagic food webs. Despite their widespread distribution, importance as a prey species, and potential to negatively interact with native fish species, there is limited information concerning stock-recruitment relationships for Rainbow Smelt. To better understand recruitment mechanisms, we evaluated potential ecological factors determining recruitment dynamics for Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron using data from bottom trawl catches. We specifically evaluated influence of stock size, environmental factors (water temperature, lake levels, and precipitation), and salmonine predation on the production of age-0 recruits from 1976 to 2010. Rainbow Smelt recruitment was negatively related to stock size exceeding to 10 kg/ha, indicating that compensatory, density-dependent mortality from cannibalism or intraspecific competition was an important factor related to the production of age-0 recruits. Recruitment was positively related to spring production suggesting that the amount of stream-spawning habitat as determined by precipitation was important for the production of strong Rainbow Smelt recruitment. Additionally, density of age-0 Rainbow Smelt was positively related to Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush abundance. However, spawning stock biomass of Rainbow Smelt, which declined substantially from 1989 to 2010, was negatively associated with Lake Trout catch per effort suggesting predation was an important factor related to the decline of age-2 and older Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron. As such, we found that recruitment of Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron was regulated by competition with or cannibalism by older conspecifics, spring precipitation influencing stream spawning habitats, and predation by Lake Trout on age-2 and older Rainbow Smelt.

    Contribution #1839
  • Johnson, James H., Emily M. Waldt 2014 Examination of the influence of juvenile Atlantic salmon on the feeding mode of juvenile steelhead in Lake Ontario tributaries. Journal of Great Lakes Research 40 (2). pp. 370-376.

    We examined diets of 1204 allopatric and sympatric juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss) in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. The diet composition of both species consisted primarily of ephemeropterans, trichopterans, and chirnomids, although juvenile steelhead consumed more terrestrial invertebrates, especially at the smpatric sites. Subyearlings of both species consumed small prey (i.e. chironomids) whereas large prey (i.e. perlids) made up a higher percentage of the diet of yearlings. The diet of juvenile steelhead at the allopatric sites was more closely associated with the composition of the benthos than with the drift, but was about equally associated with the benthos and drift at the sympatric sites. The diet of both subyearling and yearling Atlantic salmon was more closely associated with the benthos than the drift at the sympatric sites. The evidence suggests We examined diets of 1204 allopatric and sympatric juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss) in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. The diet composition of both species consisted primarily of ephemeropterans, trichopterans, and chironomids, although juvenile steelhead consumed more terrestrial invertebrates, especially at the sympatric sites. Subyearlings of both species consumed small prey (i.e. chironomids) whereas large prey (i.e. perlids) made up a higher percentage of the diet of yearlings. The diet of juvenile steelhead at the allopatric sites was more closely associated with the composition of the benthos than with the drift, but was about equally associated with the benthos and drift at the sympatric sites. The diet of both subyearling and yearling Atlantic salmon was more closely associated with the benthos than the drift at the sympatric sites. The evidence suggests that juvenile steelhead may subtly alter their feeding behavior in sympatry with Atlantic salmon. This behavioral adaptation may reduce competitive interactions between these species. that juvenile steelhead may sublty alter their feeding behavior in sympatry with Atlantic salmon. This behavioral adaptation may reduce competitive interactions between these species. 

    Contribution #1838
  • Madenjian, Charles P., Paul J. Blanchfield, Lee E. Hrenchuk, Jillian L. A> Van Walleghem 2014 Mercury Elimination Rates for Adult Northern Pike Esox lucius: Evidence for a Sex Effect. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 93 pp. 144-148.

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day-1, respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

     

    Contribution #1834

Pages

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://www.glsc.usgs.gov/publications
Page Contact Information: GLSC Webmaster
Page Last Modified: Thursday August 1, 2013